L'Orthosiphon, le sue proprietà, la sua utilità negli integratori

Studi medico-scientifici hanno provato che l’Orthosiphon ha una serie di importanti proprietà benefiche:

  • Effetti diuretici
  • Effetti uricosurici
  • Effetti natriuretici
  • Effetti kaliuretici
  • Effetti ipouricemici
  • Effetti vasodilatatori

L’azione combinata di questi effetti induce l'urina e ne regola la portata e l’escrezione di sodio.

L’estratto di Orthosiphon è utilizzato in diversi integratori alimentari.

Le proprietà e gli studi

Effetto diuretico

L'Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. è una pianta ampiamente distribuita in Africa e nel Sud-Est asiatico. Questa pianta, appartenente alla famiglia delle Lamiaceae, è un'erba perenne alta 0,3-1,0 m. L'Orthosiphon cresce in aree temperate e tropicali, come India, Malesia, Cina, Australia e Pacifico. L'Orthosiphon, in base al colore dei fiori e del calice, è classificato in una o due varietà: una caratterizzata dai fiori di colore bianco e una con quelli di colore viola. La varietà con i fiori viola sembra essere quella dotata di composti più bioattivi dell'altra.

L'Orthosiphon è molto popolare nella medicina tradizionale del sud-est asiatico, dove è utilizzato per diversi tipi di situazioni. Le sue foglie sono state introdotte in Europa e Giappone come the.

L'Orthosiphon è molto conosciuto per il suo effetto diuretico.

Effetto uricosurico

Lo screening chimico ha rilevato la presenza di tre principali classi di fitocomposti in diversi estratti di Orthosiphon: i flavonoidi polimetossilati, i fenilpropanoidi ( derivati dell'acido caffeico) e i terpenoidi (maggiormente diterpeni e triterpeni). I flavonoidi più importanti, isolati da un estratto idroalcolico di foglie di Orthosiphon, sono la sinensetina, l'eupatorina e i 3'-idrossi-5,6,7,4'-tetrametossiflavoni. Tra i derivati dell'acido caffeico troviamo l'acido rosmarinico, l'acido cicorico e l'acido 2,3- dicaffeoiltartarico, oltre allo stesso acido caffeico. Altri studi hanno riportato la presenza di altre classi di sostanze, come saponine, mio-inositolo e beta-sitosterolo.

Numerosi studi sono stati condotti per giustificare il suo esteso impiego tradizionale.

Uno studio tedesco aveva rilevato l'effetto diuretico di un estratto etanolico di Orthosiphon stamineus. Questo era caratterizzato da un'alta escrezione di sodio ed una bassa perdita di potassio.

Inoltre lo stesso estratto etanolico ha dimostrato un effetto uricosurico. Lo studio Olah et al. ha concluso che proporzionalmente all'aumento dell'idrofilicità dell'estratto aumentava anche l'effetto diuretico ed uricosurico. Lo studio attribuiva questo fatto all'abbondante presenza di polifenoli.

Effetti diuretici, natriucetici, kaliuretici ed ipouricemici

Un altro studio ha rivelato che l'assunzione orale di estratto idroalcolico di O. stamineus produceva marcati effetti diuretici, natriuretici, kaliuretici ed ipouricemici nei ratti sia in regime acuto che cronico. I recettori A1 adenosinici sono coinvolti nella regolazione della portata dell'urina e dell'escrezione di sodio. Quindi è stato scoperto che l'O. Stamineus induce la diuresi e la natriuresi antagonizzando questi recettori A1 dell'adenosina. Inoltre hanno provato che una somministrazione orale di un estratto acquoso di O. stamineus mostrava un'attività diuretica dose-dipendente.

Effetti vasodilatatori

Lo studio Adam et al. Attribuisce l'azione diuretica di questo estratto acquoso alla presenza di composti attivi che hanno sia effetti diuretici che vasodilatatori. Risultano necessari ulteriori studi per una migliore definizione delle proprietà della pianta.

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